The National Health Service
In modern day Hospitals the development of anaesthesia and surgery is ongoing, with the introduction of highly technical monitoring equipment, and anaesthetic delivery systems, precise multi- function ventilators and a wide range of induction, and maintenance drugs.
The surgeon can now call upon Complex Manufactured Instrumentation tailored for specific operative procedures. This can be seen in reconstructive surgery, especially in orthopaedic's, plastics or Max facial.
Initially this instrumentation is extremely expensive, and the cost of each individual operation and procedure is high, but as more surgeons use the implants and instrumentation, the cost comes down.
He now works in an ultra clean environment, with access to a wide variety of antibiotics and other drugs to help ensure the success of the operation. Yes it is true we still have problems with highly resistant organisms, and I am sure there will always be some organism that will challenge the biochemists, you find a cure for one and another seems to take its place.
The fact is the patient of the 21st century will survive conditions and injuries that would have killed most, 50 years ago.
The development of nursing techniques has radically improved over the years.
The patient’s welfare and rights are now being addressed at every level, audited and the results acted upon. Nursing itself has branched off into different specialties, allowing nurses to develop their roles so that they can tackle the patient’s needs with more professionalism.
This is also seen in the operating theatres, with specialised scrub nurses and ODP for orthopaedic's, anaesthetics, general surgery, plastics, neurology and cardiothoracic etc.
Eventually we will see specialised nurses and ODPs as formal scrub assistants and surgical assistants within every speciality of surgery.