Sushruta was an Indian physician who is believed to have lived around the 1st century AD (Although there is some confusion over the exact date as some say as much as 3000 years ago) He wrote Sushruta-Samhita or “The Collection of Sushruta” Sushruta is an Indian surgical repair textbook, This enormous book has 184 chapters, an incredible 1,120 conditions are listed including 51 eye conditions that can be treated surgically are listed. The book also describes 101 blunt and 20 sharp surgical instruments, many of which are surprisingly similar to instruments used today although he does recognize that the hand is the most important.

It also lists various surgical procedures including amongst others, caesarean section and rhinoplasty. Though this work is mainly devoted to surgery, it also includes medicine, pathology, anatomy, midwifery, biology, ophthalmology, hygiene and a little psychology and understanding of what would today be called the bedside manner.
Sushruta also recommended using leeches to keep wounds free of blood clots. This has only recently been rediscovered and is now used, especially in plastic surgery, to help reduce congestion in tissues, especially in wounds and in flaps used for reconstructing body parts. 

Sushruta attempted to arrange systematically the experiences of older surgeons, collect-scattered facts about medicine into workable series of lectures or manuscripts. The accuracy of Sushruta,s descriptions and classifications of diseases is remarkable.
Ancient Indian doctors were obsessed with classification of diseases Surgery was described and was divided into incision,(bheddana) excision, (chedana) scraping, (lekhana) puncturing, (vyadhana) probing, (esana) extraction, provoking secretion, (sravana) and suturing (svana).75

All in all Suzutan was a genius, he paved the way forward for many forms of surgical treatment of wounds and conditions.



Ken True History of Surgery and Anaesthesia